VLPO stands for Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus, which is a group of cells located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus in the brain. The VLPO has been shown to play a critical role in regulating sleep and wakefulness, as well as the circadian rhythm, which is the internal biological process that regulates the sleep-wake cycle over a 24-hour period. Neurons in the VLPO produce the neurotransmitter GABA, which helps to promote sleep, and it is believed that the activity of the VLPO is key to the initiation and maintenance of sleep.

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