The testicles, also known as the testes, are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and male sex hormones, including testosterone. They are located within the scrotum, a sac of skin and muscle that hangs below the penis.
The testicles are ovoid in shape and are approximately 4-5 centimeters in length and 2-3 centimeters in width. They are composed of a number of internal structures, including the seminiferous tubules, which are responsible for producing and storing sperm, and the Leydig cells, which produce testosterone.
The production of sperm and testosterone is essential for male sexual development and reproductive function. Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics, such as facial hair, deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. Sperm, on the other hand, are necessary for fertilizing a female egg and creating a viable pregnancy.
The testicles are vulnerable to a variety of health conditions, including infections, injuries, and tumors. Common conditions that can affect the testicles include testicular torsion, epididymitis, and testicular cancer. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to the testicles, such as pain, swelling, or lumps.