The retina is a layer of tissue at the back of the eye that is responsible for sensing light and transmitting visual signals to the brain. It contains specialized cells called photoreceptors, which detect light and send electrical signals to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina also contains other cells, such as bipolar cells and ganglion cells, which help to process and transmit visual information.
The retina is essential for vision, as it is the primary site of light detection and image formation in the eye. When light enters the eye, it passes through the lens and is focused onto the retina, where it is detected by the photoreceptor cells. The photoreceptor cells then send signals to other cells in the retina, which process the information and transmit it to the brain for interpretation.
There are several conditions that can affect the retina, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. These conditions can cause vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Regular eye exams are important for early detection and treatment of retinal conditions, as well as for maintaining overall eye health.