Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate, which is a small gland in the male reproductive system that produces fluid that helps nourish and transport sperm. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men and typically develops slowly over time.
Prostate cancer often does not cause any symptoms in its early stages, which is why routine screening is important for early detection. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include frequent urination, difficulty urinating, painful urination, blood in the urine, and pain in the pelvis, back, or hips.
Prostate cancer is diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and testing, such as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which measures the level of a protein in the blood that is produced by the prostate gland. If prostate cancer is suspected, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for prostate cancer depends on the stage of the cancer and other factors, such as the patient’s age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery to remove the prostate gland, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or chemotherapy. In some cases, active surveillance, also known as watchful waiting, may be recommended for men with low-risk or slow-growing prostate cancer.
Early detection and treatment of prostate cancer can improve the chances of a successful outcome. It is important for men to discuss their risk of prostate cancer and the potential benefits and risks of screening with a healthcare professional, to determine whether or not screening is appropriate for them.