Genes are the basic units of hereditary information passed down from one generation to the next. They are made up of DNA and are located on chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Genes contain the instructions for building proteins, which are the building blocks of our bodies and perform a variety of functions, such as providing structure, catalyzing reactions, and transmitting signals.

Each gene has a specific sequence of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA), and this sequence determines the specific instructions for making a protein. These instructions are transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein. Some genes also contain regulatory elements that control when and how much of the protein is produced.

Genes play a crucial role in determining the traits that are passed down from one generation to the next, such as eye color, hair color, height, and susceptibility to certain diseases. This is because genes contain the instructions for making the proteins that control these traits. The specific combination of genes that an individual inherits from their parents determines their unique traits and characteristics.

Mutations in genes can occur, leading to changes in the instructions for making a protein. These changes can result in the production of a non-functional or altered protein, leading to a wide range of diseases and disorders, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. The study of genes and their functions is known as genetics, and it is a rapidly evolving field with important implications for human health and well-being.

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