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DNA Gyrase

DNA gyrase is a type of topoisomerase, an enzyme that is involved in the regulation of DNA topology. DNA gyrase is found in bacteria and is responsible for supercoiling bacterial DNA, which helps to compact the genome and facilitate processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and recombination.

The function of DNA gyrase is to introduce negative supercoiling into the bacterial chromosome. This is achieved by creating a double-stranded break in the DNA helix, passing another segment of DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. By introducing negative supercoils, DNA gyrase helps to compact the bacterial genome and prevent it from becoming tangled during replication and transcription.

DNA gyrase is essential for bacterial viability, as mutations that prevent its activity result in a loss of supercoiling and severe growth defects. For this reason, DNA gyrase is an attractive target for antibacterial drugs. Several classes of antibiotics, including the fluoroquinolones and aminocoumarins, target DNA gyrase and inhibit its activity. By preventing DNA supercoiling, these drugs interfere with DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death.

In summary, DNA gyrase is a type of topoisomerase that is found in bacteria and is responsible for introducing negative supercoiling into the bacterial chromosome. This process helps to compact the genome and facilitate DNA replication, transcription, and recombination. DNA gyrase is an essential enzyme for bacterial viability, and is a target for several classes of antibiotics that inhibit its activity and ultimately lead to bacterial cell death.

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