Coronary Artery

The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium). The heart is a highly metabolic organ and requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. The coronary arteries are responsible for delivering this essential blood supply to the heart.

There are two main coronary arteries, the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The left coronary artery divides into two main branches, the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the circumflex artery, while the right coronary artery supplies blood to the right atrium and right ventricle.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by a buildup of plaque, which is made up of cholesterol, fat, and other substances. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the heart muscle, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and even heart attack.

Risk factors for CAD include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, family history of heart disease, and physical inactivity. Lifestyle modifications, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation, can help to reduce the risk of CAD. Medications, such as aspirin, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications, may also be recommended.

In some cases, more invasive treatments may be necessary to manage CAD, such as angioplasty, stenting, or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. These procedures are designed to improve blood flow to the heart and reduce the risk of complications, such as heart attack or heart failure.

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