Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with daily functioning and development. ADHD symptoms usually appear in childhood, although they may persist into adolescence and adulthood.
Symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three main categories:
- Inattention: Difficulty sustaining attention or following through on tasks, forgetfulness, disorganization, and distractibility.
- Hyperactivity: Fidgeting, restlessness, excessive talking, and difficulty remaining seated.
- Impulsivity: Acting without thinking, interrupting others, and difficulty waiting for one’s turn.
ADHD can have a significant impact on an individual’s daily life, affecting their academic and work performance, social relationships, and self-esteem. While the exact cause of ADHD is unknown, research suggests that genetics, brain development, and environmental factors may all play a role.
Treatment for ADHD typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and lifestyle modifications, depending on the individual’s specific needs. Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are commonly used to help manage symptoms of ADHD. Behavioral therapy can help individuals learn new skills and coping strategies to manage their symptoms and improve their daily functioning. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, healthy diet, and adequate sleep, may also be beneficial for individuals with ADHD.